семинары и конференцииCycle Chemistry 
One of the basic directions of TWT Department is optimization of cycle chemistry at fossil and nuclear power plants.
Water used for boiler operation, contains various impurities which can not be removed even with up-to-date water treatment processes. In addition, water in the power plant cycle may be contaminated with metal corrosion products, i.e. iron and copper compounds. Water impurities are deposited on heat-exchange surfaces or go to steam with subsequent deposition in turbine. Therefore, it is very important to study an influence of physical-chemical factors on deposition and carry-over of different impurities from water to steam.
Knowledge of different laws provides proper selection of controlling chemicals. This may result in an increase in operational reliability and efficiency of power-generating equipment.
For example, a lot of work has been done with participation of TWT personnel to introduce oxygenated treatment of feedwater at fossil power plants and hydrogen treatment of electric generator cooling systems.
A method of cleaning of heating water heaters from deposits was developed at TWT Department.
At present TWT Department and Scientific and Training Centre of Geothermal Energy (STS Geo) do a joint research work under agreement with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), USA, to improve turbine steam chemistry.
The department has test rigs operating at pressure range from atmospheric to 200 atm and temperature range from 25 to 500 °C, where behaviour of (a) construction materials under operational conditions of power-generating units and (b) different impurities in liquid and steam phases are studied.
Corrosion occurs not only during operation of equipment, but also during outages. One of the tasks of the utility personnel is to minimize downtime corrosion failures of equipment.
TWT Department, together with some other institutions, implements one of filming amines - octadecylamine - for equipment layup at power plants.
TWT Department has up-to-date instruments to determine low levels (1-2 ppb) of impurities (among them chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, acetate (anion of acetic acid), formate (anion of formic acid), oxalate, ammonia, potassium, sodium, iron, copper etc.) in water and steam (ion chromatograph DIONEX (USA), atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-3 (Germany) etc.). We also have Orion on-line sodium analyzer (USA) to determine low ( down to 0.5 ppb) sodium levels in water and steam.
This provides TWT Department with stable future and further research aimed to solve acute chemistry problems at fossil and nuclear power plants.
For more information please contact: Dr. Tamara Petrova and Dr. Prof.Olga Martynova
Translated by A. Petrov
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